Monday, July 12, 2010

Various types of asthma

Bronchial asthma, allergic disease is a majority of the young or the young onset, and when in the spring and autumn or Yuhan attack.
Life can be seen men and women will often suffer from asthma, dyspnea, although the performance of similar, but the cause of asthma is varied. Common asthma have the following:

Bronchial asthma, allergic disease is a majority of the young or the young onset, and when in the spring and autumn or Yuhan attack. When an asthma attack to come and go quickly, and is characterized by expiratory difficulties; asthma as normal after the cessation of the same. However, if recurrent, can not be alleviated, can develop pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary heart disease.

Asthmatic bronchitis, chronic bronchitis patients in addition to the symptoms: chronic cough, sputum outside; also with obvious breathing, and increased more than in the respiratory tract infection. Onset usually in the cold season to the elderly in the majority. This disease if not properly controlled, often late development of pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary heart disease.

The other is lung cancer, when tumors are large bronchial congestion, they can cause wheezing. Patient breath, inspiratory are difficult. Some bronchial asthma or above are caused by lung disease, called pulmonary asthma.

There is also a class of asthma is caused by heart disease, Heart induced asthma. Patients usually have coronary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, heart disease or hypertension, left heart failure occurred, causing lung bleeding, gas exchange, an attack of asthma. This break often attack at night, after more than 1,2 hours in asleep sudden difficulty in breathing. Patient was suddenly awakened by chest tightness, gas Bie, forced to sit up gasping for breath, cough, slightly pink foamy sputum. After sitting up for most patients, wheezing, and reduced, this process is called the night of paroxysmal dyspnea.

In addition, there is an occupational asthma, that asthma and certain employment-related, such as work, exposure to certain chemicals or metal compounds, lead to asthma. Their main features are: exposure and a specific substance or, in some specific environment, can cause the disease onset, once the disengagement, the symptoms disappeared.

How to prevent children with asthmatic bronchitis

Asthmatic bronchitis more often in winter and spring, the onset Xunji, mainly as follows: children with breathing difficulties, wheezing, nasal fan issue again and crying.
Asthmatic bronchitis refers to infants and young children with asthma during the performance of lower respiratory tract infections, is a seizure of allergic disease. More in early childhood (3 years) onset, often by a variety of different allergens (such as: pollen, dust, animal hair, mites, bacteria, etc.) caused by climate change, agitation can be induced.

Asthmatic bronchitis more often in winter and spring, the onset Xunji, mainly as follows: children with breathing difficulties, wheezing, nasal fan, sent bursts of crying; children with mouth breathing, can not be supine, be forced to sit or kneel in bed, the two upper front brace, arched shoulders, forehead cold sweats. Attack of the time variable may be a few minutes to several hours.

When the sick child, parents should pay attention to respiratory isolation, reduce the chance of secondary bacterial infection, constantly changing position, the water to discharge in respiratory secretions. In the diet, suitable light, Wu Shi salty, too sweet food. Indoor air to keep fresh, proper ventilation, but do not have children to avoid another cold air convection. After recovery, to as little as possible bring the child to public places, pay attention to strengthening the cold warm, climate change and avoid the outside world once again trigger asthma.

Beijing Friendship Hospital, according to Dr. Li introduced prevention and health care, often recurrent asthmatic bronchitis, but less common with age, recovered in a few years a small number of cases may develop asthma. At present, the risk of asthma, chronic bronchitis and other diseases for children over 2 years old, can prevent pneumococcal vaccination, both to alleviate the suffering of patients, but also save the health care costs, effectiveness.

Child cold medicine to be alert to

Some drugs such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen is able to relieve pain and fever, and if a doctor for your child to open this kind of medicine your medicines.
At this moment turns warm again, a cold still wary. Our well-tips and I hope that your baby opportunities to reduce the risk for cold reduced.

Cold, though less popular, but it is still like a day and night with our neighbors to constantly remind us that it is nearby. Our children are usually minor sneezing, runny nose symptoms do not care about, but if there are such cold symptoms as a flu, colds per child for one year the average number of about 6 times.

But there is a good news is that the children where each earned one cold, their bodies or the war against germs and viruses of Nengli on Zengqiangyixie, Zhe Yang, to Tamen after school, Gan Mao's Cishu will be greatly reduced Le.

The spread of influenza in children between

Cold, lasting 6-14 days, the first 3 days contagious, but transmission may still occur after two weeks. Opportunities for each other child transmission is relatively large. If a child suffering from cold symptoms showed only a runny nose, he may not care, but like a hand to Ca Biti, this way, the bacteria or virus into his hands, clothes, toys, and can survival of about half an hour, when the other children play with these toys, the then hand to Mobi Zi, rubbed my eyes, can be infected.

Flu prevention strategy

Wash hands

Why do this?

With a virus or bacteria with the hand to rub the nose or eyes, is the most likely people to suffer from the common cold.

This work?

Hand washing is the simplest way to prevent colds, and indeed effective, but only to wash their hands with soap more than 30 seconds, then rinse water. Using hand sanitizers also can achieve the same effect. Especially the kindergarten children, wash their hands if they can guarantee good habits, they cold opportunities will be reduced by 50% or more.

Cover your nose and mouth when sneezing

Why do this?

Each of a sneeze, millions of bacteria to spray into the air.

This work?

Research has proven that flu viruses spread through the air directly is unlikely, unless it is directly sprayed into a person sneezing in the face. In any case, in order to better health and polite, sneezing, please cover your hands or paper is better.

Cold weather wear warm spots

Why do this?

Cold, people get a cold.

This work?

We all have this sense that the cold weather to give a child wearing a dress. Old saying "cold spring and fall cover their" volatile weather season, clothing is effective immediately added measures to prevent influenza.

Patients do not pro-children

Why do this?

Cold can spread through saliva.

This work?

Research shows that parents face about the role of the virus is not strong, unless you let the virus into the eyes or nose. But some bacteria can spread through kissing, such as throat infections caused by Streptococcus.

Drug alert

Some minor cold symptoms, people used to the pharmacy to buy some non-prescription drugs to combat the cold, but in reality, this is not hundred percent safe. Many drug treatment of cough or nasal obstruction is disabled or used with caution in children. Because some drugs can cause allergic reactions or hallucinations, some decongestants and cough medicines can lead to arrhythmia or excessive excitement. Medication to infants, particularly careful not to misuse drugs, larger child should follow doctor's ordered by your doctor.

How cold can feel comfortable after the point

Some drugs such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen is able to relieve pain and fever, and if a doctor for your child to open this kind of medicine your medicines. (Doctor's prescription is based on open condition, not to alleviate the suffering of children to seek some kind of medicine doctor.)

Chicken soup much use at this time. Although some researchers say, chicken soup contains substances against streptococci, but not too sure what the magic ingredient it. Chicken soup help digestion, to prevent dehydration, it will not stimulate the pain of the throat and, more importantly, most children like to drink.

Clean up before going to bed for the baby nasal secretions. Saline nose drops can drip onto the nose, and nasal suction device used to gently suction out secretions, relieve nasal congestion.

Room humidifier to keep the air moist, let the children comfortable. But do not forget the daily cleaning and drying machines, to prevent bacterial contamination.

Misunderstanding of the common cold

Misunderstanding number one: antibiotics to treat colds. Antibiotics fight bacteria, but many cold is caused by a virus, antibiotics can hack it.

Misconception 2: sinusitis will secrete snot green. Secretion of a cold will make people fat, yellow or green nasal discharge.

Misunderstanding number three: cold can not eat. Children need nutrients to recover from the fight against influenza, there is no appetite a day or two if he does not matter, but to ensure adequate water intake of his, especially when fever or stop a runny nose, may lead to dehydration.

Misunderstanding four: stop coughing is very important. Clear respiratory mucus cough is a normal human reaction, do not cough inhibitors taking the children without permission, unless it is the doctor prescribed.

Misunderstanding 5: Chinese medicine, vitamins and minerals can prevent a cold. These substances may be beneficial to the body, but do not rely too much on their role in the prevention of influenza.

Alarming phenomenon

One warning: fever for three consecutive days in 38 ° C or more, or nose secretions are more than 10 days, accompanied by facial pain.

Possible outcomes: sinus infection. If the doctor diagnosed a bacterial infection, he will prescribe some antibiotics.

Police Call 2: complain about ear pain in children or keep pulling the ear, showing irritability, or fever for more than 4 days.

Possible outcomes: ear infections, a common complication of infants and young children. If the child's ears have fluid discharge, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics, but most ear infections will heal.

Police Call 3: breathing difficulties, or with a shrill voice, or the often strenuous dry cough.

Possible outcomes: asthma. Cold generally does not cause asthma, but children suffering from asthma may be brought once the cold shortness of breath. Doctors to distinguish by auscultation common respiratory congestion and difficulty breathing, and then determine the medication.

Police Call 4: pain of blisters on the lips.

Possible outcomes: a simple herpes virus. Most adults have with this virus body and can spread through skin contact or saliva, your doctor may prescribe prescription drugs to shorten the course.

Asthma How to prevent pregnancy

Pregnant women with asthma to be active and properly adopt measures to prevent asthma attacks, in order to smoothly through the pregnancy safely, and to ensure normal delivery.
Pregnant women with asthma, about 23% increase in pregnancy or recurrence of symptoms, which is called "pregnancy asthma." So, What is the relationship between asthma and pregnancy, and effects?

(1) the impact of pregnancy on asthma: now that the major impact of pregnancy on asthma are two aspects: ① mechanical factors: With the enlarged uterus, elevated diaphragm, thoracic diameter increased, so call gas reserve volume and functional residual capacity decreased, tidal volume increased, also increase the oxygen consumption, but because of the diaphragm and chest wall muscle activity was not affected, so this was not caused by mechanical factors that increase asthma attacks, but it can aggravate asthma attack When hypoxemia; ② pregnancy changes of the endocrine system: endocrine system, pregnant women, the complex physiological changes occur, including progesterone, estrogen can influence the increase in gas made smooth muscle tension, and thus participate in the regulation of asthma , especially pregnant women increase in prostaglandin F, and prostaglandin F2a on airway smooth muscle incorporated strong role, while asthma has on prostaglandin F2a sensitive, easy to cause asthma attacks. In addition, it was also found that maternal asthma and IgE her body related to the content of IgE decreased in normal pregnant women, if the increased IgE in asthmatic pregnant women, suggests she may exacerbate asthma.

(2) an asthma attack, the impact on pregnant women and fetuses: asthma in pregnant women and fetuses affected depends largely on the ability to effectively control asthma attacks. The commonly used drugs to control asthma most of the pregnant women and fetuses no significant side effects. After proper treatment and good control of asthma attack pregnant women, usually in the whole process of pregnancy does not cause abortion, premature delivery, prolonged labor and dystocia, most pregnant women can be more smoothly and safely through the entire pregnancy and normal delivery. Mild asthma attack, not much impact on the fetus, newborn delivery and birth weight rating of the number of pregnant women with normal deliveries of newborns did not differ. If a longer period of pregnant women with asthma not under control, may cause serious complications in pregnant women and fetuses. Pregnant women, pre-eclampsia occurs, pregnancy-induced hypertension, toxemia of pregnancy, hyperemesis gravidarum, vaginal bleeding and obstructed labor. Fetal growth retardation in the womb, expired products, low body weight. If severe asthma attack can cause serious maternal and fetal hypoxia, dysfunction, resulting in lower birth weight of newborns, or nervous system is not normal, and some even threaten the lives of pregnant women and fetuses, perinatal mortality than normal birth 2 times higher.

Pregnant women with asthma to be active and properly adopt measures to prevent asthma attacks, in order to smoothly through the pregnancy safely, and to ensure normal delivery. This could take the following methods:

(1) Prevention: Pregnant women with asthma should be avoided whenever possible trigger factors of asthma, such as pollen, dust, coal smoke flavor, spices, cold air and pets, no smoking and avoid passive smoking, avoid mental stress, to prevent respiratory infections. Active treatment "potential" disease. Mattress and pillows need to set the cap airtight jacket, a week with 60 ℃ water washing blanket, to keep indoor humidity below 50%. Using the vacuum cleaner to wear face masks. In addition, the concentration of allergens in the air increased the season to avoid going out at noon. For some long-term inhaled corticosteroids in asthma, pregnant women should not be suddenly stopped, as has been found inhaled corticosteroids for pregnant women and fetuses with special effects. Mild to moderate asthma patients are known to pregnancy or plan to become pregnant, they can switch to inhaled cromolyn sodium, no teratogenic effect on pregnant women and no adverse effects, is preferred to prevent pregnancy asthma drugs.

(2) observe the condition of measures: asthma, pregnant women and fetuses on the need to check with the appropriate method to observe the changes of the disease. Every pregnant woman regularly when measured by peak expiratory flow rate has been applied to childbirth, and this is because the peak expiratory flow rate can be estimated indirectly airway hyperresponsiveness and airway allergic inflammation, not only that, in pregnant women, chest tightness, shortness of breath symptoms, can have an objective basis for the differential diagnosis, one for early detection of fetal asphyxia; the performance of some pregnant women with asthma although not significant, but the drop in peak expiratory flow rate, when prompted to inadequate fetal oxygen supply, has a potential danger, the need for immediate and reasonable treatment. In addition, regular monitoring of the fetus should, in addition to observe the fetal heart rate and fetal movement, the necessary, but also the conduct of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring.

(3) drug treatment measures: maternal asthma attack according to the national re-select the appropriate level of the drug.

1, if the asthma attack, less than 2 times per week, nocturnal asthma attack less than 2 times per month may make use of β2 agonists, each 2 press, 1 every 4 hours. After the two β2 agonist inhalation, oral and other channels, in the conventional dose no harm to the fetus. If you disappear after treatment of pregnant women with asthma, peak expiratory flow rate returned to normal, while β2 agonist inhalation suspension, asthma appears to re-use. If symptom control is not satisfactory, can be added with oral theophylline, aminophylline general use long-term, per night for 1 piece, in order to control nocturnal asthma, there would be Peter, the use of theophylline in serum for tea time concentration of alkali.

2, when the pregnant women inhaled β2 agonist, increased requirements or daily routine applications need to control asthma, suggesting that the situation has been mild to moderate asthma, inhaled corticosteroids need to be applied by the long-term observation, the daily acid times the dose of chlorine Pine 200-800 microgram is generally believed that no side effects on the fetus, as the preferred inhaled corticosteroid drugs. If the condition can not control, plus a general use of oral prednisone daily or every other day Dayton suits.

3, severe asthma attack when pregnant women take 1-2 days of intravenous hydrocortisone, asthma improved immediately after the auxiliary switch to oral prednisone and inhaled chlorine propionate times loose, and gradually reduce the intensity until the deactivate oral pine, alone propionate inhaled chlorine Song Wei hold times can also be combined with other asthma medicines.

Of particular note is that previous maternal glucocorticoid asthma have more concerns, fears of pregnant women in particular have adverse effects on the fetus. Foreign scholars in recent years by the long-term animal studies and clinical observations, in particular, confirmed by pharmacokinetic studies, hydrocortisone, prednisone and prednisolone have little effect on the fetus, and the concentration of dexamethasone into the larger placenta , on the role of fetal and maternal similar effects. According to the results, if the pregnant woman with asthma whose condition requires application of oral prednisone, prednisolone or intravenous hydrocortisone, or for pregnant women and fetal safety, but not dexamethasone is preferred. In addition, the first 3 months of pregnancy should avoid systemic use of glucocorticoids. Certain glucocorticoid dependent asthma, systemic administration should be changed to inhaled drugs, including the preferred acid chloride Song times. For these patients, delivery process is the key, should be given adequate time to enter the delivery room of glucocorticoids, to prevent the delivery of physiological stress led to decreased in vivo glucocorticoid, asthma attacks. Non-steroid dependent asthma in pregnancy, it should be minimal with or without corticosteroids.

Six steps to manage children with asthma

Asthma is shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing or chest tightness or symptoms of chronic progressive symptoms appeared simultaneously.
Part I: patient education in asthma management and partnership with the patient. Doctors should let patients learn to avoid the risk factors; the proper use of drugs; know that "drug control" and "relief medicine" different; recognize signs of worsening asthma and to take action and other methods, concurrent with the patient to make an appropriate medical care and have a practical significance of a written personal asthma management plan.

Part II: assessment and monitoring of asthma severity. Through the record daily asthma diary and lung function measurements as possible, objective evaluation and monitoring of asthma severity and treatment. Doctors can help patients before the onset of symptoms, awareness of early signs of asthma deterioration (ie, a personal best PEF value of less than 80%), patients with asthma management plan based on his prompt action to avoid a serious attack.

Part III: Avoid exposure to risk factors. These risk factors include: Indoor mite allergens, tobacco smoke, have brought the animal fur allergens, cockroach allergens, pollen and outdoor mold, mildew and other indoor.

Part IV: Development of long-term management of asthma individualized treatment plan. If the asthma under control and has maintained at least 3 months, with a gradual reduction method to downgrade the drug treatment, the aim is to reduce the drug treatment at least until the need to maintain control.

Part V: Development of control of asthma when the individual program. Asthma is shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing or chest tightness or symptoms of chronic progressive symptoms appeared simultaneously. If a serious attack, the patient should immediately seek medical care.

Part VI: require regular follow-up treatment. Once the asthma under control, every 1-6 months of regular follow-up interval is appropriate, and must be upheld. In these follow-up, treatment plan, drugs and the degree of asthma control to monitor and modify.

Well controlled asthmatic children, affected not only growth, but also the same as a normal child to participate in various activities.

Friday, July 9, 2010

Starting from the anti-cold to prevent asthma

Swimming for children with asthma is a very good refreshing exercise, swimming moist air, suitable temperature, no stimulation of the respiratory tract, the water pressure on the sustainable and balanced chest, heart and lung function can exercise and enhance the ability to resist asthma.
The heat, many families will use air-conditioning, but for the children, allergies, upper respiratory tract by the cold air "attack", the easy response to the original in a high state of the trachea, bronchial spasm reflex occurs, there asthma. Therefore, to prevent the main from the defense, "cold" starting:

1. The child was sweating profusely from the outside good time back home, do not immediately enter the air-conditioned room, you can let the children first body with a towel to wipe away the sweat, to be emotionally stable, then right to enjoy air conditioning.

2. Air conditioning temperature setting Do not lower than 26 ℃, do not let children are facing the air conditioning outlet. The air-conditioned room if it is not completely updated and circulation, air conditioners and dust accumulated in the virus may also trigger asthma. Therefore, the air conditioning room window every day and regular ventilation, air conditioning should always cleaning and maintenance.

3. Encourage children to eat cold, especially when good time sweating, not to open the refrigerator pick up cold to drink. Drink some of the natural let cool at room temperature, the boiled water or green bean soup can be sunstroke.

4. More wash with lukewarm water baths, each bath water temperature should be gradually reduced, so that children can enhance the ability to adapt to temperature changes. School children from the summer with cold water washed every day habits, helps kids in the cold season, climate change and disease resistance.

5. Swimming for children with asthma is a very good refreshing exercise, swimming the air moist, cool, dry, no stimulation of the respiratory tract, water, sustainable and balanced pressure on the chest, heart and lung function can exercise and enhance the ability to resist asthma. Long-term adherence to swim, to help reduce asthma attacks.

The main symptoms of bronchial asthma had known

Because asthma is mainly encountered within the V of the sputum incentive to trigger, so, in addition to be taken to avoid contact with allergens but also should pay attention to diet Taboo, especially acid salt Gan fertilizer, cold sea fishy things. Distinguish between specific dietary Taboo is another when the heat or cold Asthma Asthma and choice.
Bronchial asthma is a result of bronchospasm, mucosal edema, bronchial obstruction caused increased secretion of allergic disease, manifested as paroxysmal shortness of breath, chest tightness, difficulty breathing, wheezing, cough and sputum. In addition to the factors contributing to dust, pollen, or cold air, smoke, chemical odors, etc., the diet should not be too often lead to asthma attacks.

Traditional medicine, the incidence of asthma, with sputum for the internal, as places sputum V, each due to other factors Pathogenic Factors or induced. As different as a result of sputum, so as cold medicine is divided asthma Asthma Asthma and heat are two types.

Taboo principle

Because asthma is mainly encountered within the V of the sputum incentive to trigger, so, in addition to be taken to avoid contact with allergens but also should pay attention to diet Taboo, especially acid salt Gan fertilizer, cold sea fishy things. Distinguish between specific dietary Taboo is another when the heat or cold Asthma Asthma and choice.

Cold wheeze were shortness of breath, throat song sputum, expectoration A thin and small, color white was sticky foam-like, full of boring, such as mediastinoscopy snapped, dark complexion with blue lag, I thirst, or thirsty hi hot drinks, white fur slip, or both headache chills, fever, no sweat of the disease. Cold heavy breathing person with almost prime Yi Chi Wen Lung, and cold, Phlegm, the role of interest awakened warm foods, Jichi of cold things cold; Jichi salty and greasy food; Jichi sea fishy alcoholic drinks and tobacco . Who is also a hot heavy breathing shortness of breath and throat with wheeze, but the sputum adhesive and thick yellow cloud, behind spit negative, mediastinoscopy depressed anxiety Mianchi spontaneous perspiration, thirst hi drink, red tongue, clover yellow and greasy , or a combination of headache, fever, a sweat embolism. Heat Asthma lonely person Yichi of heat, clearing the lungs phlegm food, Jichi spicy warm dry, lit of hot oil fry burst of goods; Jichi Gan Zi-fed fat and alcohol. As to the latter part of the development of asthma, righteousness damage, lung spleen and kidney all virtual, mainly manifested as asthma, then refer to the "virtual asthma" section of the Food Taboo.